Local Area Networking (LAN) uses two types addresses: logical addresses and physical addresses. These addresses are different, so it is important to understand the terms.
1. Address Resolution: This support function helps network devices match the correct physical address to a known, logical one. The physical address is the final piece of information required to complete the frame. AppleTalk uses AARP, whereas TCP/IP uses ARP. IPX does not use address resolution.
2. BOOTP is a service that provides a configuration service. It provides an IP logical adress and configuration information over a network to a device. This configuration is static and must be manually entered into the BOOTP Server with the physical address of each device. When the device requests it, the server will send you the BOOTP configuration. It will use your physical address to identify you.
3. DHCP: A configuration service which provides an IP logical adress and configuration information over a network to a device. The lease period for the configuration is fixed and may need renewal depending on the server configuration. DHCP and BOOTP can both be provided from the same server.
4. Frame: A combination Layer 2 headers used to transport the packet from its source address to its destination. The Layer 2 physical addresses are used to identify the next network device from which the packet must be sent to the destination logical address.
5. IPX/SPX is Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. Novell, Inc. identified Layer 3 protocols for networking Novell servers. Novell has updated its servers in order to support TCP/IP, even though this protocol is still being used.
6. LAN: Local Area Network. A network is called a LAN. It can be used to refer to the entire network or a specific segment. A LAN is an intranet or home network that connects with the network devices.
7. Layer: This layer can be used with a number in order to identify a reference layer within the Open System Communication model. (OSI). This model uses Layer 1-7 for the identification of network functionality of software and hardware. Layer 2 (datalink layers) identifies physical address functions, while Layer 3 (“network layers”) identifies logical address functions.
8. Name Server: This service supports the matching of known names and logical addresses. This support function aids devices to find the correct address to add to their message.
9. Protocol: A set of or series rules. Each protocol uses a different set of rules.
10. Packet: A collection of headers that are used to transport the payload/message, from its source to its destination. A frame is required to help the physical network process the packet.
11. Routed protocol: A set o rules from Layer 3 protocol used to create the packet carrying the message.
12. Routing protocol: A set rules that are used by router configurations to determine the best path to destination network logical addresses. Routing protocol creates routing lists within the router that can then be used to determine the path.
13. Routing Table: Each router creates an index of the routing protocol and a table with logical addresses and networks. This table is used to determine the best route to the destination device. It is based upon the best match with Layer 3 header destination logical address.
14. Subnet: A group of TCP/IP devices that are connected to a single network but separated by a router.